Once again, then, the 1960s emerge as a period of transition (‘Schwellenzeit’, Reinhart Koselleck) in the establishing of an increasingly transnational youth pop culture in the second half of the twentieth century. Such ritualised situations can be seen in traditional April 1st jokes or ‘orgiastic festivals’, such as Carnival, also considered as ‘moral holidays’.35 In these interpretations, it is above all male aggression that is ‘tamed’ in this way. In May 1966, in anticipation of the Beatles concert, Wiesbaden police organised a working meeting on the topic of ‘modern police behaviour towards young people’, in which there was discussion of the lessons to be learned from the events in Berlin.52 The police were given training in crowd psychology, initially rejected by many of them as ‘brainwashing’ imposed by police prefects.53 In Munich, a jazz expert was invited to speak to senior police officers to give them an introduction, with the aim of raising their awareness of different sounds, with the help of a ‘very good Jazz band’.54, 19For comparative purposes, the German police also looked at similar events that had taken place abroad. , September 9, 1965; ‘Bindet die Stühle an!’, Before the Stones’ German tour, the popular newspaper. 1, Germersheim, Rheinland-Pfalz, 76726 Kontakt Map Öffnungszeiten Bewertungen His book Jugend – Pop – Kultur. The police officers withdrew in order to be divided into new groups. PhS. In unserem Nachrichtenticker können Sie live die neuesten Eilmeldungen auf Deutsch von Portalen, Zeitungen, Magazinen und Blogs lesen sowie nach älteren Meldungen suchen. 85.13.132.0/24 Network Information. 24 See ‘Wenn man da mitten drinne is […]’, op. The venue was entirely sold out. Thi From the outset, preparations included a large police operation. Zeitschrift für die Berliner Polizei, October 2, 1965, p. 21. Politicians used these arguments to call for a ban. With almost 21,000 people already crowded inside, several thousand fans who had not been able to get tickets pressed up against the entrance. See the following chapter: Alexander Mitscherlich, ‘Die Idee des Friedens und die menschliche Agressivität’, in. Petry hat auf alles eine Antwort, noch bevor die Frage gestellt wird, beziehungsweise die häufig gar nicht so gestellt wird, wie Frauke Petry sie gern hätte. A virulent debate then ensued between the concert organisers, the media, the police, and politicians, about who was principally to blame and all the interests involved. But it was clear that no major public order issues were expected because equipment was limited to ‘uniforms, protective visors, and batons’ with no helmets or riot shields. Join Facebook to connect with Ulrike Lehmann and others you may know. 80% of the venue’s wooden benches and 90% of its wooden barriers were destroyed.28, Example of media coverage after the riot at the Waldbühne: press cutting, with black border. See ‘Die “Rolling Stones” wohnen im Hilton’. Sternheimer Karen, Pop Culture Panics: How Moral Crusaders Construct Meanings of Deviance and Delinquency. Boston: Da Capo Press, 1993. Far from stigmatising rituals connected to concerts or sports events and viewing them as factors leading to agitation, this interpretation has progressively given them moderating and stabilising qualities. 8The band had only been playing for ten minutes when several dozen fans climbed onto the stage to join the musicians. 3Before the Stones’ German tour, the popular newspaper Bild had declared that the group’s ‘main objective’ was ‘hysteria, fainting, and turmoil’.5 The Berlin newspaper B.Z. 1The early 1960s were relatively calm compared to the previous decade, during which clashes relating to rock 'n' roll and negative social stereotypes associated with the labels ‘Halbstarke’, ‘teddy boys’, and ‘juvenile delinquents’ constantly made the headlines. 52 Request by the Wiesbaden Prefect of Police to the Berlin Prefect of Police, dated March 31, 1966, PhS 3.43.3. Eine Betrachtung von Wolfgang Fietkau’. The discourse of criminalisation came to an end and the rock concert became recognised as a cultural event. A mere six minutes later, the report describes how the situation escalated. Zeitschrift für die Berliner Polizei, October 2, 1965, p. 75. , January 6, 1967; see H. J. Bünger, ‘Stadtrat “ra. In the debate that ensued at Berlin’s Municipal Parliament, elected officials from across the political spectrum all referred to on-going debates about so-called changes in values among the youth of the time. 23 On the events at the Waldbühne on September 15, 1965 (report on the execution and experience), Berlin, September 17, 1965, p. 6, PhS 3.43.3. Eine transnationale Geschichte (Berlin: Suhrkamp, 2019), p. 496-453, 614-635; Florence Tamagne, ‘La “Nuit de la Nation”: culture jeune, rock’n’roll et panique morale dans la France des années 1960,’ in Rock et violences en Europe, Criminocorpus – Revue hypermedia, edited by Pascal Dupuy and Joann Élart, 2018, doi: https://journals.openedition.org/criminocorpus/4481. A new debate about the state of that youth began. Die neuen Sitze der Waldbühne können einiges aushalten’, Berliner Morgenpost, February 17, 1967. As the Rolling Stones’ tour also went to other cities in West Germany, debates about the public order issues linked to concerts did not only occur in Berlin. The police force present managed to clear the stage and surrounding area, through the use of batons. As in one of the execution methods used in Ancient China, this imbalance could even lead to ‘death by music’.37 Politicians used these arguments to call for a ban. Im Malteser-Schulungszentrum am Ludwig-Erk-Platz wird im nächsten Jahr das "Haus der Prävention" mit unterschiedlichsten Beratungsangeboten entstehen. ’) in the process establishing a new rock and pop culture. In reality, the group were discreetly housed in Grunewald, a sparsely populated area on the outskirts of Berlin, largely covered in forest.9 The group then took a top secret route through the Berlin backstreets to get to the pressroom of the publisher Springer, where a press conference was held, having only been announced a short time before. The band had only been playing for ten minutes when several dozen fans climbed onto the stage to join the musicians. 5 ‘Tick im Hirn’, Der Spiegel, no 37, 1965, p. 122. The event also sparked administrative reform. As for the city of Munich, it considered applying a 14,000 Deutschmark tax on entertainment spectacles on the pretext that the shows by ‘young London singers’ were not about music but simply a form of popular entertainment. rev. For the first time, audio and visual recordings were used to provide solid evidence but also for purposes of police training. This solution was even more advisable because ‘youths were drawn to everything to do with technology and admired the audacity and skill of the motorbike riders’. 30 Bravo, no 41, 1965, cited in BRAVO. The morning after: disenchantment, damage, and debate. Bei der Räumung eines Hauses im Berliner Stadtbezirk Friedrichshain hat es Zusammenstöße zwischen Polizei und autonomer Szene gegeben. They also took up the topic of the fear of delinquency, dating back to the previous decade, in relation to rock 'n' roll and fuelled by demographic data suggesting societies were becoming ever younger. Therefore, the article suggests considering the mid-sixties as a watershed (‘. Eine transnationale Geschichte, Portail de ressources électroniques en sciences humaines et sociales, Surveiller les Stones : musique et violence à Berlin. Certain accounts report that some of the audience climbed onto the benches and jumped up and down on them in rhythm, whilst shouting in chorus for the concert to continue. 41 Minutes of the debates published in Polizei Schau. für freiwillige Spenden mein Link https://www.paypal.me/lilie75. Fights between Mods and Rockers broke out in seaside resorts in the south of England, while in Paris a mass concert announced as the ‘Nuit de la Nation’ (held on the city’s Place de la Nation) spiralled out of control. 17 ‘Welcher Spieler hat uns in der Hand ? These wooden benches, designed only for people to sit on them, gave way beneath the weight and when the first planks were smashed to pieces, some fans started ripping up more, either caught up in the excitement, according to some, or out of anger at the brevity of the concert and at police use of batons, according to others – causing similar disturbances as during a Bill Haley concert at the Berlin Sportpalast six years earlier. Police spokespersons expressed strong criticism of the event’s organisation, pointing to the failings of the security services. The Berlin police had taken a range of precautionary measures, including the deployment of 357 officers, 12 mounted officers, and 30 dogs. had declared that the group’s ‘main objective’ was ‘hysteria, fainting, and turmoil’. Misinformation had deliberately been leaked to the press claiming that rooms had been booked in the city centre. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. and citing a musical education specialist from Bremen, Gotho von Irmer. Agency Bulletin ‘Berliner Polizei fuer Verbot von Krawall-Veranstaltungen’, n.d., typescript, PhS 3, Note on the urgent question of the CDU group on the prevention of scenes of violence and vandalism, Polizei Schau. ‘Rolling Stones machen keine Musik – nur Lärm’ (with the Associated Press agency), The question of banning concerts was also debated at an inter-regional level. 34 Martin Morlock, ‘Girlie Action’, Der Spiegel, no 39, 1965, p. 157. Bravo’s tour included concerts in Münster, Essen, Munich, Berlin, and Hamburg. Once again, then, the 1960s emerge as a period of transition (. Police riot squads ready for action,”, Anti-Rock: the Opposition to Rock 'n' Roll, The Rolling Stones’ tour was organised by the youth magazine, following the example of its French counterpart. Al. […] Alte Polizeiakten verraten nun, wie verhärtet die Fronten waren,” Welt am Sonntag, June 8, 2014, p. 47. 4From the outset, preparations included a large police operation. Pathologie mentale, sexualité et expérience de l'autre, La prévention des récidives : Évaluation, suivis, partenariats, Les Fourches Patibulaires du Moyen Âge à l’Époque moderne. 32 See letter from Kindler und Schiermeyer publishers to the Police Prefect dated September 1, 1965, PhS 3.43.3. Nevertheless, the problems in Berlin considerably slowed down the future development of open-air rock concerts in Germany, which were generally criminalised in somewhat excessive discourse from the media, police, politicians, and academics alike. The incidents that took place during the Rolling Stones’ Berlin concert demonstrate in an exemplary fashion how the emergence of new forms of culture in the 1960s did not occur without conflict. Staatsministerium des Innern, München, May 26, 1965, Bayerische Polizeischule Fürstenfeldbruck 472, Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv. Zeitschrift für die Berliner Polizei. See letter from Kindler und Schiermeyer publishers to the Police Prefect dated September 1, 1965, PhS 3.43.3. p. 265-273; Thomas Grotum, “Die Bill-Haley-Tournee 1958. 143, November 1965, p. 5-10, and here p. 8. PhS 3.43.3. Konsum und Politik in der westdeutschen Jugendkultur der 60er Jahre (Göttingen: Wallstein, 2006) p. 241-246. Misinformation had deliberately been leaked to the press claiming that rooms had been booked in the city centre. 40 Note on the urgent question of the CDU group on the prevention of scenes of violence and vandalism in Berlin, III B 3 – 0321/440 5254, PhS 3.43.3. The violence also took place in reaction to the police intervention, which was in part unnecessarily aggressive, and as a result of logistical organisation and material conditions that were entirely unsuited to the new format required by a rock concert – as was the case in Paris with the ‘Nuit de la Nation’. This lighting had been chosen based on experiments conducted in jazz concerts, which seemed to show that fans’ emotions could be channelled and literally ‘cooled down’ by white light. Sie erhalten sofort Zugang zu allen digitalen Inhalten im Web und in unserer VRM News-App. An initial police intervention cleared the stage, although not without ‘the use of batons’, and, after a short pause, the group was able to resume playing. « Let’s go, let’s go… Unzeitgemäße Betrachtungen über Beatmusik », The notion of ritual outlet was borrowed from ethnology, in turn inspired by psychoanalysis. A little earlier, the first isolated cases of ‘police battoning’ had been reported, to prevent groups of ticketless fans from forcing their way inside. 2 I discuss the repercussions of these events in a newspaper article: Bodo Mrozek, “Aktion Steinschlag. This article analyses the violence that broke out at a 1965 Rolling Stones concert in West Berlin. Bodo Mrozek, « Policing the Stones: Music and Violence in Berlin. 28 See Verlaufs- und Erfahrungsbericht über den polizeilichen Einsatz, S. 13. But only twenty minutes later, the organisers stopped the concert.19 Around 9.50pm, the spotlights that had been flooding the stage with bright white light were turned off.20 This lighting had been chosen based on experiments conducted in jazz concerts, which seemed to show that fans’ emotions could be channelled and literally ‘cooled down’ by white light. Internal publications gave accounts of material damage sustained during rock concerts in Paris in 1961, clashes in the south of England in 1964, cases of fainting and ‘hysterical’ behaviour during showings of films about the Beatles that same year, as well as the destruction that took place during Beatles concerts in Australia and in San Francisco. Alte Polizeiakten verraten nun, wie verhärtet die Fronten waren,”. The police also came under pressure from the media. Thanks to pragmatic measures, the venue was eventually suitably equipped for rock concerts, with wire fencing that was impossible to climb and metal benches that could take the weight of many spectators.43 Drinks were now served only in paper cups that could not be used as projectiles.44, 16As the Rolling Stones’ tour also went to other cities in West Germany, debates about the public order issues linked to concerts did not only occur in Berlin. D. bekennt, dass sie sich bei der Polizei bewerben möchte. ’s tour included concerts in Münster, Essen, Munich, Berlin, and Hamburg. 59 See Claude Chastagner, De la culture rock (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2011). Déviantes et délinquantes XIXe-XXIe siècles, Sujets déviants, sujets pervers. 19-39. In May 1966, in anticipation of the Beatles concert, Wiesbaden police organised a working meeting on the topic of ‘modern police behaviour towards young people’, in which there was discussion of the lessons to be learned from the events in Berlin. In reality, the group were discreetly housed in Grunewald, a sparsely populated area on the outskirts of Berlin, largely covered in forest. were thrown onto the stage or at police officers. See the Report on the execution and experience of the police measures, Berlin, September 23, 1965, p. 11, PhS 3.43.3. When the five young Brits stepped off the aircraft at Tegel airport on September 15, substantial measures had been taken to ensure security on the runway. In a close reading of records from the Berlin Police archives, it understands the events at the concert as the combined result of a lack of experience with new cultural forms of expression, old-fashioned ideas of ‘order’ deeply rooted in German history, and logistical failures. Grotum Thomas, “Die Bill-Haley-Tournee 1958. The violence also took place in reaction to the police intervention, which was in part unnecessarily aggressive, and as a result of logistical organisation and material conditions that were entirely unsuited to the new format required by a rock concert – as was the case in Paris with the ‘Nuit de la Nation’. Teilen Sie das: Wasserschutzpolizeistation 07274 94670 Alte Schiffbrückenstr. In defence of their strategy, police leaders pointed to the effects of alcohol but also to the ‘systematic propaganda of the tabloid press’, which had been ratcheting up the tension for weeks with sensationalist headlines as though hoping to provoke clashes. Task forces and ‘substantial reinforcements’ were on stand-by next to the stage. At Hotel Sachsenhof on the Nollendorfplatz. Meyhöfers Gasthaus Kremmen. Konsum und Politik in der westdeutschen Jugendkultur der 60er Jahre. By 9.10pm, it was clear that this would not suffice. ), Popgeschichte. Shortly after this abrupt end, ‘to avoid further destruction, the evacuation of the Waldbühne’ began around 10.15pm ‘with the use of batons’. Martin Linda and Segrave Kerry, Anti-Rock: the Opposition to Rock 'n' Roll. See: ‘Die Waldbühne im Wiederaufbau. 2: Zeithistorische Fallstudien 1958-1988, edited by Bodo Mrozek, Alexa Geisthövel, and Jürgen Danyel. Portions of benches were smashed, shoes, clothes, empty bottles etc. Fachzeitschrift für die öffentliche Sicherheit, no 56, 1965, p. 36. Hundreds of youths [tried to] storm the stage. Note on the ‘Rolling Stones’ concert on September 15, 1965 at the Waldbühne, September 8, 1965. {Sudhoffs Archiv: Zeitschrift f{\"u}r Wissenschaftsgeschichte} Volume 51, Number 1, 1967 Ekkehard Kleiss Fruchtbarkeitsidole der Timoto-Cuicas: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der frühen venezolanischen Medizin- und Kulturgeschichte. See the following chapter: Alexander Mitscherlich, ‘Die Idee des Friedens und die menschliche Agres. Dem ewigen Gott vertrau allein, was deine Seel bedrückt. 31 Report on the execution and experience, p. 7. London: Routledge, 2014. ), BRAVO. The destruction of benches, barriers, and lighting systems increased in scale. The Transnational Debates of the 1960s. (Boston: Da Capo Press, 1993), p. 132-133. , September 1965; ‘“Sie sollen kreischen”. ‘Rock’n’Roll Panic’ in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland”. A bus then took them straight to their accommodation at a secret location. “Stones Dragnet! This solution was even more advisable because ‘youths were drawn to everything to do with technology and admired the audacity and skill of the motorbike riders’.46 For the first time, audio and visual recordings were used to provide solid evidence but also for purposes of police training.47 In Essen, unconventional methods were used as described in one report, for example covering the front of the stage with black soap so that any fans trying to climb up would slide back down again under the jeers of the crowd!48, The Rolling Stones stage is prepared with black soap – according to the Telegraf’s caricaturist (October 30, 1965), 17The question of banning concerts was also debated at an inter-regional level. See more of Radio Cottbus Verkehrsservice on Facebook Dr. Hans Irmer, Arzt Tel 04102 52610 Fax 04102 52678 E-Mail kreisstelle.stormarn@kvsh.de AKTUELL See Report on the experience of police measures relating to beat music concerts, sheet 9, 15. A new debate about the state of that youth began. Dachdeckermeister Felix Strenzke Putgolla 7, 03099 Kolkwitz (Glinzig) Dach Deckert ... Zentraldienst der Polizei für Technik und Beschaffung Lipezker Straße 45, Cottbus (Innenstadt) Chinarestaurant Ming Dynastie They included the Team Beats Berlin and Didi and his ABC-Boys, famous for their German adaptations of Beatles hits. See the Report of the Schutzpolizei command S1, Berlin, 16 September 1965, p. 3, Polizeihistorische. Finden Sie Polizei in der Nähe Ihres Zuhauses von Germersheim. Fachzeitschrift für die öffentliche Sicherheit, Extract from the Report of the Institute of Police, Paris,’. In 1968, the West German magazine Kontakte published an article entitled ‘Do you want total beat?’ paraphrasing Goebbels’ 1943 speech on ‘total war’ at the Berlin Sportpalast and citing a musical education specialist from Bremen, Gotho von Irmer. 1970 hätten 300.000 Muslime in Deutschland gelebt, heute seien es sechs bis sieben Millionen. A little earlier, the first isolated cases of ‘police battoning’ had been reported, to prevent groups of ticketless fans from forcing their way inside. were thrown onto the stage or at police officers. But only twenty minutes later, the organisers stopped the concert. had contacted the police before the concert. Vol. sie tragen's nur von Haus zu Haus, weil's ja wie Menschen sind. For a short while, it seemed as though adults adopting youth dances, such as the twist, had consigned the troubles of rock to the past, but towards the second half of the 1960s, the media reported several public order issues. Tamagne Florence, “La ‘Nuit de la Nation’. The first bottles had started to fly outside the venue. A free inside look at Polizeiprasidium Mittelfranken offices and culture posted anonymously by employees.